the individuals living in Etruria and other regions of early Italy. The usage of male nudity and female exposure among the Gauls reveals the survival of early

customsand taboos in historicaltimes.
The deep and often painful emotions of joy,
pain, shock, or shame the sight of the nakedbody
arouseswere used by artistsin many means. Nakedness
was, and still is, always . can
signify divinity, or show human helplessness. Most
impressive is the magic of the erect male genitals,
which accounts for the survival of the apotropaic
Picture of the phallus into Classical times, on the herm
and the satyr and in Old Comedy.
I’ve tried to illustrate some aspects of the portrayal of nakedness,partial and entire,for guys
and for girls, in Greece, and in the barbarian
world; to interpret some of the early reports, and
to “read”some of the images, in the Greek arty
language, in addition to in some really queer barbariandialects. There are clearly issues of translation,
often involving our own understandingof the naked
the painterZeuxis,was describedby Lucian.Zeuxis:see
Robertson413, 488. Barbarianprisonerson Roman
148 Suprans. 3, 9-12, 91. S. Freud,A GeneralIntroduction

to Psychoanalysis(first English publ. 1920; rev., repr. Awesome
York 1964) 160: “The number of things which are repre-

in dreamsis notgreat. The humanbody
as a whole, parents,children,brothersand sisters,birth,
Passing, nakedness…. ” See also P. Slater, The Gloryof Hera

Suprans.9-10, 38. AmongrecentstudiesseeL. di Stasi,


figure in artwork. We have a tendency to think of it as mainly lusty.
Eros definitely goes behind the sight of the nude
human body, but its sensual significanceis not the only
one in art. Actually, when it is only eroticits significance is
least powerful. The Aphroditeof Euripides’Hippolytus, with all her awesomepower, was fully dressed. In
Greece the remarkable innovation of fit male
nudity, which surely originated in a rite, religious
Circumstance, developeda unique societal and civil meaning.
It becamea costume,a uniform:exercisingtogetherin
the gymnasia marked guys’s standing as citizens of the
polis and as Greeks. On the vases, this is how youthful

men were shown.
Female figuresshown nakedin people, on the other
hand, were typically entertainers. Women depicted
as exposed were broken, stripped of their clothes,
and in dreadfuldanger,as vulnerableand unprotected
before a male attacker as Athenian law conceived
them to be in life. Clothes distinguishes men from
animals. This differentiation remains valid in Classical
Greek art for women (thoughnot for guys). Polyxena,
and Iphigeneia, nude by the altar, are about to be
sacrificedlike animals.
The viewpoint of nakedness among barbarians differs,
Frequently contrasting sharply with that of mainland
Greece in the Classical period, and permits US to see
more clearly, maybe,just how special the Greekconcept and customwere. Hebrews and Romans made a
Assortment of adjustmentsto include-in a limited waythe ancient ideal of Greek male nudity and of the
gymnasia in their own artwork and in their life. The Gauls’ custom of fightingnakedwas remarkedon as “foreign”by
the Greeks. In Etruria, and in Italy, female nudity
and the picture of the breastfeeding mother still mark the
power of the mothergoddess,as they did in the Mediterraneanbefore Greek art predominated.
In Classical antiquity, hence, the contrast between the clothed and the naked human body was
used to express some of the most basic contrastsof the
human experience:God and man, human and animal,
Guy and girl, public world and privatelife

Mal Occhio:The Undersideof Vision(San Francisco1981),
with review by A. Burgess, TLS, 4 September 1981, 999;

Cultural studies professionals have long debated the signication of clothing and
the means in which they signify sensuality, sexuality, status, in addition to the ethics
and codes of production of clothes, consumption, the operations of notions of
belonging in the subscription to fashion trends — all in all, the manners in which
Garments symbolizes. Evaluations of clothing and fashion have often treated the
‘Nude’ body as if it really is prior to rendering besides in its depiction in art,
Porn, advertisements and other media. The debates in art history and people
sphere parlance over the differences between naked and nude are moot points
when seen through a post structuralist lens. Kenneth Clark (1956) implies
that artistic portrayal — high art — has the skill to depict the naked as nude,
as if ‘nude’ is another type or style of clothing, leaving behind ‘naked’ as the genuinely
disrobed. Treating the naked body in this way ignores how it’s consistently already
Signified and constrained by codes of behaviour, contexts, distinction from
the clothed body, loose signications and ethnic rituals. Although nakedness is
most frequently performed during, with or alongside practices of sexuality, it seems