In Finnish culture, nudism is thought of as a comparatively normal way to live. It is not uncommon to see whole families spending time together naked. Families may be naked while bathing in a sauna, swimming in a pool, or playing on a plage, and it’s not unusual to see kids playing naked in a kindergarten or family yard for example. Nudity as a whole is considered less taboo than many other nations.[41][42][43][44][45]

Main article: Nudism in France

In 1903 la Revue des deux mondes printed a report on German nudism and S. Gay created a naturist community at Bois-Fourgon. In 1907, supported by his superiors, Abb Legre encouraged the students at his catholic faculty to bathe naked on the rugged beaches near Marseille.
Sign on the beach at Cap d’Agde

Marcel Kienn de Mongeot is credited with starting nudism in France in 1920. His family had suffered from tuberculosis, and he found nudism as a cure and a continuance of the conventions of the early Greeks. In 1926, he began the magazine Vivre intgralement (after called Vivre) and the first French naturist club, Sparta Club at Garambouville, near Evreux. The court action he started, created that nudism was legal on private property that was fenced and screened.[8]
Randonue in Les Concluses, Gard, 2008

Drs. Andr and Gaston Durville bought a 70 hectare site on the le du Levant where they established the hamlet of Hliopolis. The hamlet was open to the people. In 1925 Dr Franois Fougerat de David de Lastours wrote a thesis on heliotherapy. and in that year opened the Club gymnique de France. In 1936, the naturist movement was officially recognised.[8]

Albert and Christine Lecocq were active members of many of these clubs, but after disagreements left and In 1944 Albert and Christine Lecocq founded the Club du Soleil with members in 84 cities. In 1948 they founded the FFN, in 1949 they began the magazine, Vie au Soleil and in 1950 opened the CHM Montalivet, the world’s first naturist holiday center where the INF was formed.[8]

The Quartier Naturiste at Agde offers a different kind of social nudity. Euronat is the biggest holiday center (335ha) situated 10 kilometers north of Montalivet. Naturism employs more than 3000 individuals, and is estimated to be worth 250 million Euro to the French economy. France is represented on the INF by the FFN.
Main article: Nudism in Germany
See also: Freikrperkultur

German naturism was part of the Lebensreform movement and the Wandervogel youth movement of 1896, from Steglitz, Berlin which encouraged ideas of fitness and vigour. At precisely the same time doctors of the Natural Healing Movement were using heliotherapy, treating ailments for example TB, rheumatism and scrofula with exposure to sunlight.[34]
Nude beach on the Unterbacher See, near Dsseldorf, Germany

Nacktkultur, a term coined in 1903 by Heinrich Pudor, thrived.[46] Nacktkultur joined nudity, vegetarianism and societal reform. It was practised in a network of 200 members clubs. gained prominence in the 1920s as offering a wellness giving lifestyle with Utopian ideals. Germany published the first naturist journal between 1902 and 1932.[31] It became politicised by radical socialists who considered it’d bring about classlessness and a breaking down of society. It became connected with pacificism.[47]

In 1926, Adolf Koch created a school of naturism in Berlin; encouraging a mixing of the genders, open air exercises, and a programme of “sexual hygiene”. In 1929, the Berlin school hosted the first International Congress on Nudity.[46]
Youthful East German girls at a naturist beach in 1988.

During the National Socialist Gleichschaltung age, all naturist clubs had to enroll with the Reichsbund fr Leibesbungen, which meant excluding Jews and Communists. Additionally, they had to keep all tasks hidden in the countryside w here there was little chance of being seen by others. The standing as a West German sports federation member gave the clubs rights and privileges (e.g. tax exemptions) so the naturist clubs remained in the federation after the war had finished.

After the war, East Germans were free to practice nudism, primarily at seashores rather than clubs (private organizations being regarded as possibly subversive). Naturism became a large component in DDR politics. The Proletarische Freikrperkulturbewegung subsection of the Workers Sports Organisation had 60,000 members.[34] Today, following reunification there are many clubs, parks and beaches open to naturists.[1] though nudity has become less common in the former eastern zone. Germans are generally the most generally seen foreigners at nude beaches in France and around Europe.[48]
Naked men at the Przystanek Woodstock festival, 2014